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Thursday, November 23, 2023

Microsoft Windows 7 Professional Edition Command Key Combinations or Shortcut Commands


Here is a table of some commonly used shortcut commands in Windows 7 Professional edition:



General Shortcuts

Ctrl + C

Copy selected items to clipboard

Ctrl + X

Cut selected items

Ctrl + V

Paste items from clipboard

Ctrl + Z


Ctrl + Y


Ctrl + A

Select all items

Ctrl + S


Ctrl + P


Ctrl + F


Alt + F4

Close the active window

File Explorer Shortcuts

Alt + Enter

Open the Properties dialog box of the selected item

Alt + P

Show or hide the preview pane in Windows Explorer

Alt + Up Arrow

Go up one level in Windows Explorer

Alt + Left Arrow

Go back in Windows Explorer

Alt + Right Arrow

Go forward in Windows Explorer


Rename the selected item

Taskbar Shortcuts

Win + 1, 2, 3, ...

Open the program in the corresponding position on the taskbar

Win + T

Cycle through items on the taskbar

Win + B

Set focus on the notification area

Shift + Click on a taskbar item

Open a new instance of the program

Desktop Shortcuts

Win + D

Show or hide the desktop

Win + M

Minimize all windows

Win + Shift + M

Restore minimized windows

Win + E

Open Windows Explorer

Win + R

Open the Run dialog box

Ctrl + Shift + Esc

Open Task Manager

Alt + Tab

Switch between open programs

Win + L

Lock the computer

Accessibility Shortcuts

Ctrl + Shift + N

Activate Sticky Keys

Left Alt + Left Shift + Num Lock

Activate Mouse Keys

Windows logo key + U

Open Ease of Access Center

System Shortcuts

Ctrl + Alt + Delete

Open the Windows Security dialog box

Ctrl + Shift + Click on a taskbar item

Open a program as an administrator

Note: These shortcuts are based on the default settings in Windows 7 Professional edition, and they may vary if you have customized your keyboard shortcuts or if you are using a different language version of Windows.

Monday, November 13, 2023



A computer virus is a type of malicious software that is designed to replicate itself and spread to other computers. It can cause harm to a computer system, such as deleting files, stealing personal information, or displaying unwanted advertisements. Viruses typically spread through email attachments, infected software downloads, or by being transferred from infected external storage devices. The best way to protect against viruses is to keep your operating system and antivirus software up to date, and to be cautious when opening email attachments or downloading software from the internet.

How to prevent from Computer Virus?

There are several steps you can take to prevent your computer from getting infected with a virus:

  • Keep your operating system and software up to date: Make sure to install updates and patches as they become available, as they often include security fixes that can help protect against known viruses.

  • Use antivirus software: Antivirus software can help detect and remove viruses that may already be on your computer, as well as prevent new viruses from being downloaded.

  • Be cautious when opening email attachments: Be wary of opening email attachments, especially if they are from an unknown sender or contain unexpected content.

  • Be careful when downloading software: Only download software from reputable sources and be sure to read the terms and conditions before installing.

  • Keep your Firewall on: A firewall is a software that monitors your incoming and outgoing network traffic, and can help to block malicious traffic.

  • Avoid clicking on suspicious links: Be cautious when clicking on links in emails or on websites, as they may lead to malware-infected sites.

  • Regularly backup your important files: Backing up your important files regularly can help you to recover them in case your computer is infected with a virus and you need to wipe it clean.

  • Educate yourself about the latest threats: Keep yourself informed about the latest computer viruses and the ways they can infect your computer.

Following above steps can help you to protect your computer from viruses, but it is important to note that no method is foolproof, and new viruses are constantly being created.

Types of Computer Viruses

There are several types of computer viruses, each with their own unique characteristics and methods of infection. Some common types of viruses include:

  • File Infectors: These viruses infect executable files and can spread when the infected files are run or opened.

  • Boot sector viruses: These viruses infect the boot sector of a hard drive, which is the area of the disk that contains the code that starts the operating system.

  • Macro viruses: These viruses infect Microsoft Office documents and spread when the infected document is opened.

  • Trojan horses: These are not viruses but are malicious programs that disguise themselves as legitimate software and can be used to steal personal information, delete files, or take control of a computer.

  • Worms: These are self-replicating programs that can spread quickly through networks, email, and instant messaging.

  • Ransomware: This is a type of malware that encrypts a victim's files, making them inaccessible, and demands a ransom payment in exchange for the decryption key.

  • Adware: These are software that displays unwanted ads, pop-ups and can track the user's browsing habits and personal information.

  • Rootkits: These are a type of malware that is designed to conceal the presence of other malicious software, such as viruses and Trojans, by hiding files, processes, and registry keys.

It's important to note that these are just a few examples of the many different types of viruses that exist, and new types are constantly being created.

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